Engine Block.
The engine block is mad of cast iron. The engine
block has four cylinders arranged in line from front
to back. The engine block is a one piece casting.
The cylinders are surrounded by coolant jackets.

Cylinder Head.
The cylinder head is cast aluminum made in a form
casting process. This results in a casting requiring
very little machining after production. The cylinder
head has powdered metal valve guides and valve

The crankshaft is cast nodular iron. Five crankshaft
bearings support the crankshaft. These are called
the main bearings. The bearings are retained by
bearing caps. Number four crankshaft bearing also
serves as the crankshaft thrust bearing. The
bearing caps are machined with the block for proper
alignment and clearances. The bearing caps are
retained by two bolts each. Four connecting rod
journals are spaced 90 degrees apart from each
other. There is one connecting rod for each journal.

Piston and Connecting Rod Assemblies.
The pistons are cast aluminum. The pistons use
two compression rings and one oil control ring. The
piston is a low friction nd lightweight design with a
flat top and barrel shaped skirts. The piston pins are
made of chrome steel. They have a floating fit in the
piston and are retained by a press fit connecting
rod. The connecting rods are forged steel. The
connecting rods are machined with the rod caps
installed for proper clearances and fit.

The camshaft is steel. The camshaft is supported
by five bearings pressed into the engine block. The
camshaft is of an assembled design with each lobe,
journal, and the oil pump drive gear assembled
onto a hollow tube which is then expanded to hold
the components in place. The camshaft timing
chain sprocket mounted to the front of the camshaft
is driven by the crankshaft sprocket thorough a
camshaft timing chain.

Valve Train.
The valve train uses cast steel rocker arms with
roller bearings. Movement is transmitted from the
camshaft through the hydraulic roller valve lifters
and the tubular push rods to the valve rocker arms.
The valve rocker arm pivots on a roller bearing in
order to open the valve. The valve train is of the
net-lash type without provision for manual
adjustment. All valve train lash is taken up by
hydraulic roller valve lifters.

The valve springs are of a conical type which
reduces valve train harmonics and noise.

The valve seals are integral with the valve spring

Intake Manifold and Fuel Rail.
The intake manifold is constructed of a composite
material incorporating metallic compression limiters
at the mounting points for the throttle body, fuel rail,
and the manifold to cylinder head flange. The fuel
rail is of an assembled tubular design.

Exhaust Manifold.
The exhaust manifold is made of cast iron.
2.2L Engine Mechanical Description And Operation

More Car Repair Help